Binod Rayamajhee

PhD Candidate

Research Title: “Investigation on the association between the Acanthamoeba genotypes and severity of the corneal infection”


Dr Nicole Carnt, and Prof. Mark Willcox

Email Address:

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Acanthamoeba is a free-living opportunistic protozoan, which can cause a severe form of sight threatening infection of cornea, called Acanthamoeba keratitis (AK). AK is most common in contact lens wearers and is often misdiagnosed with other microbial keratitis such as herpes simplex virus keratitis. Early diagnosis and appropriate treatment on time is necessary to minimize the severity associated with AK. Study of 18S rRNA has revealed eighteen genotypes (T1-T18) of Acanthamoeba. Genotype T4 is predominantly associated with AK and shows high level of binding capacity to host cells. Therefore, genotyping should be an integral part of clinical diagnostic setting which may help to reduce the disease burden. Studies have shown that there is association between the Acanthamoeba genotypes and severity of the corneal infection. Genotyping of Acanthamoeba could add further insight in the diagnosis and may provide predictive value for clinical outcomes. Genetic analysis permits rapid diagnosis with high sensitivity which could play a significant role in specific anti-amoebic therapy.  


Binod completed his post-graduate study in Medical Microbiology from Tribhuvan University, Nepal in 2017. After completion of his post-graduate, Binod was extensively working in different organizations of Nepal focusing antimicrobial resistance (AMR) and infection control. Back in 2017, Binod co-founded a research institute in Nepal which works mainly in infectious diseases ( in national and international collaboration. The research interest of Binod includes AMR, viral pathogenesis, host defence mechanism, drug discovery, contact lens associated eye infections, disease surveillance, interspecies transmission of disease, and molecular diagnosis of infectious diseases. Binod practically focuses on how the surging burden of infectious diseases can be addressed locally and globally. The PhD project of Binod aims to identify the association between keratitis causing Acanthamoeba genotypes and disease severity of AK and/or clinical outcomes, and host defence mechanism against the AK will be examined.





2020 -Current

PhD Candidate

University of New South Wales, Australia


MSc in Medical Microbiology

Tribhauvan University, Nepal


BSc in Microbiology

Tribhauvan University, Nepal


Journal Articles

  • Rayamajhee B, Willcox MD, Henriquez FL, Petsoglou C, Carnt N. Acanthamoeba keratitis: An increasingly common infectious disease of the cornea. The Lancet Microbe. 2021;2(8):e345-6.
  • Rayamajhee B, Subedi D, Peguda HK, Willcox MD, Henriquez FL, Carnt N. A systematic review of intracellular microorganisms within Acanthamoeba to understand potential impact for infection. Pathogens. 2021;10(2):225.
  • Rayamajhee B, Subedi D, Won S, Kim JJ, Vijay A, Tan J, Henriquez FL, Willcox M, Carnt NA. Investigating domestic shower settings as a risk factor for Acanthamoeba Keratitis. Water. 2020;12(12):3493.
  • Rayamajhee B, et al. 2021. How Well the Government of Nepal Is Responding to COVID-19? An Experience From a Resource-Limited Country to Confront Unprecedented Pandemic. Frontiers in Public Health.2021;9, p.85.
  • Mehata S, Parajuli KR, Pant, ND, Rayamajhee B, et al. Prevalence and correlates of Helicobacter pylori infection among under-five children, adolescent and non-pregnant women in Nepal: Further analysis of Nepal national micronutrient status survey 2016. PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases. 2021;15(6), p.e0009510.
  • Pokhrel A, Rayamajhee B, et al. Seroprevalence and Clinical Features of Scrub Typhus among Febrile Patients Attending a Referral Hospital in Kathmandu, Nepal. Tropical medicine & infectious disease. 2021;6(2), p.78.
  • Yadav UN, Rayamajhee B, et al. A syndemic perspective on the management of non-communicable diseases amid the COVID-19 pandemic in low-and middle-income countries. Frontiers in Public Health. 2020;8, p.508.

Posters and Abstracts

  • Rayamajhee B, Aacharya J, Ghimire L, ‘Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in people living with HIV/AIDS visiting a Tropical and Infectious Disease Hospital in Nepal’. ASM microbe 2016, June 16-20, 2016, Boston, U.S.A. 
  • Rayamajhee B, Manandhar S, KC N, Parajuli P, Aacharya J, ‘Incidence of nalidixic acid resistant Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi and Salmonella enterica serovar Paratyphi A and their antibiotic susceptibility pattern isolated from enteric fever patients attending Hospital in Kathmandu’, Annual Conference of SfAM, 4 – 7 July 2016, The Assembly Rooms, Edinburgh, U.K. 
  • Rayamajhee B, Ghimire L, Aacharya J, Pun B, Maharjan S, Manandhar S, ‘Determining Serotypes and Antibiotic Susceptibility Patterns of Shigella and Vibrio Isolates from HIV-sero Positive Children Patients Attending National ART Reference Laboratory in Kathmandu’, asm microbe 2017, June 1-5, 2017, New Orleans, LA, U.S.A.
  • Rayamajhee B, Parajuli DP, Panta OP, Ghimire L, ‘Prevalence of foodborne pathogens in fresh, minimally-processed green vegetables and fruits and their drug resistant status from retail establishment of Kathmandu valley’, SfAM annual meeting, July 3-6, 2017, New Castle, U.K. 
  • Rayamajhee B, Manandhar S, Sherchand SP, Sherchan S, Aacharya J, ‘Prevalence of diarrheal disease in HIV positive children patients with their CD4 T-cells level in Kathmandu, Nepal’, 66th annual meeting of the American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, Nov 5-9, 2017, Baltimore, U.S.A. 

Reports and Book Chapters

  • Rayamajhee B, Sherchan S., ‘Prevention is Care’, Microbiologist Magazine, Society for Applied Microbiology, LABS, 90 High Holborn, London, UK. March, 2018, Page 14-17. Available:
  • Rayamajhee B, ‘Role of community pharmacists in controlling antimicrobial resistance’, Microbiologist Magazine, Society for Applied Microbiology, LABS, 90 High Holborn, London, UK. December, 2018, Page 51. Available: (


  • ESCMID (The European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases) Postgraduate Education Course Grant – 2022
  • ASM Student and Postdoctoral Travel Award – 2021 & 2017 from American Society for Microbiology.
  • Collaborative research grant ($100 thousand) in response to COVID-19 from the University Grants Commission (UGC), Nepal for project “COVID 19: Investigation on Secondary Metabolites from Natural Products through Computational Chemistry and Immunochemistry Approach”, 2020, role – Co-PI
  • TFS plus a Research Stipend Scholarship from UNSW, Sydney, Australia- 2020-2023
  • Annual conference studentship - 2018, 2019 from Society for Applied Microbiology, U.K.
  • ‘Public Engagement Grant-2018’ from Society for Applied Microbiology, U.K.
  • Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation Travel Award - 2017 from American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene (ASTMH), U.S.A.
  • Graduate student research (GSR) award from Childreach Nepal & UNICEF Nepal in 2016


  • World Microbe Forum (ASM & FEMS), 2021 
  • ASM (The Australian Society for Microbiology) annual conference, Victoria, Australia, 2021
  • ASM MicroSeq2020, Victoria, Australia, 2020
  • Annual Congress (8th) of European Microbiologists, Glasgow, U.K., 2019
  • ASM (American Society for Microbiology) Microbe, New Orleans, U.S.A., 2017
  • ASM Microbe, Boston, U.S.A., 2016
  • Annual conference (66th) of the American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene (ASTMH), Baltimore, U.S.A., 2017
  • SfAM (Society for Applied Microbiology) annual meeting, New Castle, U.K., 2017


  • Communication Ambassador, Australian Society for Microbiology (ASM)
  • Abstract Advisory Program (AAP) Member, Consortium of Universities for Global Health (CUGH)
  • Member, The American Society for Microbiology
  • Early Career Scientist Member, Society for Applied Microbiology (SfAM)
  • Member, International Conference Committee (ICC), SfAM, UK
  • Member, European Society for Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Disease (ESCMID)
  • Founding Member, Kathmandu Research Institute for Biological Sciences (KRIBS)