Name: Tim Fricke
Research Title: Global vision impairment epidemiology
Supervisors: Lisa Keay, Serge Resnikoff, Nina Tahhan
Email Address: email@example.com
The World Health Organization recently redefined vision impairment to encompass total (met and unmet) need for care rather than only unmet need. This has particular impact on vision impairment from refractive error, where there is a group of people with met need (they have appropriate vision correction), and a group with unmet need (who have been unable to access appropriate vision correction). In response, the epidemiology of refractive errors needs updating to reflect total burden and correction rates. Understanding how the epidemiology is affected by factors such as demographics, lifestyle, climate, and development would facilitate improved eye care planning.
To address the critical knowledge gaps created by the altered definitions, I will:
- Perform a systematic review and analysis to generate global estimates of distance refractive error, specific for type, age, place and sex;
- Analyse factors linking refractive error and vision impairment, to inform refractive error thresholds, and
- Perform a systematic review and analysis to generate spectacle correction estimates – i.e. to link total refractive needs to unmet need to understand who, where, how many and why people have distance and/or near vision impairment from uncorrected refractive error.
RMIT University, Melbourne, VIC — Graduate Diploma in International Development, completed with distinction in 2010
University of Melbourne, VIC — Graduate Certificate in Ocular Therapeutics, completed 2003
University of Melbourne, VIC — Master of Science (by research), completed with first class honours in 1996
University of Melbourne, VIC — Bachelor of Optometry, completed 1993
Tim Fricke is an optometrist, researcher and international development practitioner. He has held clinical, teaching, research, management and leadership roles in private, public, community health, hospital and refugee camp settings, including Clinic Director at the Australian College of Optometry, Director at the Brien Holden Foundation, and Executive Director at BHVI. He has extensive paediatric clinical experience, supervised post-graduate research in paediatric eye care and health economics, taught undergraduate and post-graduate eye care courses, provided continuing professional development across Australia and internationally, and researched vision development, epidemiology, quality of life and access to eye care. He has assisted the development of local systems and skills for providing primary and specialised eye care in Australia, Tanzania, Vietnam, Cambodia, Sri Lanka and elsewhere. He is currently principal at MinneMerri Consultants, an honorary senior fellow at the University of Melbourne, and a PhD candidate at UNSW.
Philip K, Paudel P, Vincent JE, Marmamula S, Fricke TR, Sankaridurg P. Refractive error and school eye health. Chapter 10 in South-East Asia Eye Health, SpringerLink, 2021
Sankaridurg P, Tahhan N, Kandel H, Naduvilath T, Zou H, Frick KD, et al. IMI Impact of Myopia. Investigative ophthalmology & visual science. 2021;62(5):2.
Burnett A, Paudel P, Massie J, Kong N, Kunthea E, Thomas V, Fricke TR, Lee L. Parents' willingness to pay for children's spectacles in Cambodia. BMJ Open Ophthalmol. 2021;6(1):e000654.
Prakash Paudel, Vilas Kovai, Anthea Burnett, Thomas Naduvilath, Suit May Ho, Tim Fricke, Nguyen Viet Giap. Effects of a community-based health education intervention on eye health literacy of adults in Vietnam. Int J Health Promotion & Education. 2021; DOI: 10.1080/14635240.2021.1905028
Fricke TR, Brand C, Lovett L, Turner NW, Anjou MD, Bentley SA. Lessons learned from a subsidised spectacles scheme aiming to improve eye health in Aboriginal people in Victoria, Australia. Aust Health Rev 2021;45(2):194-8
Lee L, Burnett AM, D’Esposito F, Fricke T, Nguyen LT, Vuong DA, Nguyen HTT, Yu M, Nguyen NVM, Huynh LP, Ho SM. Indicators for assessing the quality of refractive error care. Optom Vision Sci 2021;98(1):24-31
Naidoo KS, Fricke TR, Frick KD, Jong M, Naduvilath TJ, Resnikoff S, et al. Potential lost productivity resulting from the global burden of myopia: systematic review, meta-analysis and modelling. Ophthalmology 2019;126:338-46
Fricke TR, Hurairah H, Huang Y, Ho SM. Pharmacological interventions in myopia management. Community Eye Health 2019; Vol 32, No 105: 21-22
Fricke TR, Tilia D, Tran MA, Hurairah H. Optical interventions in myopia management. Community Eye Health 2019; Vol 32, No 105:19-20
Fricke TR. Implications of the public health burden of myopia and high myopia. Review of Myopia, March 2019.
Fricke TR, Tahhan N, Resnikoff S, Papas E, Burnett A, Ho SM, Naduvilath T, Naidoo KS. Global prevalence of presbyopia and vision impairment from uncorrected presbyopia: systematic review, meta-analysis, and modelling. Ophthalmology 2018;125:1492-99.
Fricke TR, Jong M, Naidoo KS, Sankaridurg P, Naduvilath TJ, Ho SM, Wong TY, Resnikoff S. Global prevalence of visual impairment associated with myopic macular degeneration and temporal trends from 2000 through 2050: systematic review, meta-analysis and modelling. Brit J Ophthalmol 2018;102:855-862.
Holden BA, Fricke TR, Wilson DA, Jong M, Naidoo KS, Sankaridurg P, Wong TY, Naduvilath TJ, Resnikoff S. Global prevalence of myopia, high myopia, and temporal trends from 2000 to 2050. Ophthalmology 2016;123:1036-42.
Holden BA, Tahhan N, Jong M, Wilson DA, Fricke TR, Bourne R, Resnikoff S. Editorial: Towards better estimates of uncorrected presbyopia. Bulletin World Health Organization 2015;93:667.
Holden BA, Jong M, Davis S, Wilson D, Fricke TR, Resnikoff S. Nearly 1 billion myopes at risk of myopia-related sight-threatening conditions by 2050 - time to act now. Clinical and Experimental Optometry 2015;98(6):491-3.
Holden BA, Wilson DA, Jong M, Sankaridurg P, Fricke TR, Smith 3rd EL, Resnikoff S. Myopia: a growing global problem with sight-threatening complications. Community Eye Health 2015;28(90):35.
Li J, Wong K, Park AS, Fricke TR, Jackson AJ. The challenges of providing eye care for adults with intellectual disabilities. Clinical & Experimental Optometry 2015;98(5):420-9.
Napper G, Fricke T, Anjou MD, Jackson AJ. Breaking down barriers to eye care for Indigenous people: a new scheme for delivery of eye care in Victoria. Clinical & Experimental Optometry 2015;98(5):430-4.
Burnett A, Yu M, Paudel P, Naduvilath T, Fricke TR, Hani Y, Garap J. Perceptions of eye health and eye health services among adults attending outreach eye care clinics in Papua New Guinea. Ophthalmic Epidemiology 2015;22(6):361-9.
Paudel P, Khadka J, Burnett A, Hani Y, Naduvilath T, Fricke TR. The impact of impaired vision on quality of life in Papua New Guinea. Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology 2015;43:202-13.
Fricke TR. Atropine as part of treatment protocols for amblyopia. Pharma September 2015: 16-18.
Tahhan N, Papas E, Fricke TR, Frick KD, Holden BA. Utility and uncorrected refractive error. Ophthalmology 2013;120(9):1736-44.
Fricke TR, Holden BA, Wilson D, Schlenther G, Naidoo KS, Resnikoff S, Frick KD. Estimated global cost of correcting uncorrected refractive error. Bulletin World Health Organization 2012;90:728-38.
Fricke TR, Wilson D, Holden BA. Demographics: Vision Impairment due to uncorrected presbyopia. Chapter 1 in Presbyopia: Origins, Effects and Treatment, Slack Incorporated, USA, 2012.
Holden BA, Fricke TR. Uncorrected refractive error halfway to 2020. Points de Vue, Spring 2011;64:26-30
Smith TST, Frick KD, Holden BA, Fricke TR, Naidoo KS. Potential lost productivity resulting from the global burden of uncorrected refractive error. Bulletin World Health Organization 2009;87:431-37
Ayton LN, Abel LA, Fricke TR, McBrien NA. Developmental Eye Movement Test: What is it really measuring? Optom Vis Sci 2009;86(6):722-30
Tahhan N, Fricke TR, Naduvilath T, Kierath J, Ho SM, Schlenther G, Layland B, Holden BA. Uncorrected refractive error in the northern and eastern provinces of Sri Lanka. Clin Exp Optom 2009;92(2):119-25
Holden BA, Fricke TR, Ho SM, Wong R, Schlenther G, Cronje S, Burnett A, Papas E, Naidoo KS, Frick KD. Global vision impairment due to uncorrected presbyopia. Archives Ophthalmology 2008;126(12):1731-9
Coordinating author for IAPB Refractive Error Program Committee. Strategy for the elimination of vision impairment from uncorrected refractive error. International Agency for the Prevention of Blindness, Hyderabad, 2008
Liang S LH, Fricke TR. Diagnosis and Management of Accommodative Esotropia. Clin Exp Optom 2006;89(5): 325-331
Wong EPF, Fricke TR, Dinardo C. Inter-examiner repeatability of a new modified Prentice Card compared to established phoria tests. Optom Vis Sci 2002;79(6):370-75
Fricke TR, Mansioris N and Vingrys AJ. Management of patients with narrow angles and acute angle-closure glaucoma. Clinical and Experimental Optometry 1998;81:255-66
Fricke TR and Siderov J. Stereopsis, stereotests and their relation to vision screening and clinical practice. Clinical and Experimental Optometry 1997;80:165-72
Fricke TR and Siderov J. Non-stereoscopic cues in the Random-Dot E stereotest. Ophthal & Physiol Optics 1997;17(2):122-7
Fricke TR, Resnikoff S, Ho SM, Naidoo KS, Naduvilath TJ, Sankaridurg P. High myopia and associated complications. Vietnam Ophthalmology Society annual meeting, Ho Chi Minh City, November 2018
Naidoo KS, Fricke TR, Sankaridurg P, Naduvilath TJ, Jong M, Resnikoff S, Frick KD. Estimated global productivity loss from myopia. Association of Research in Vision and Ophthalmology Annual Meeting, 7-11 May 2017, Baltimore Md, USA.
Napper GA, Lovett L, Anjou MA, Fricke TR, Bentley SA. The Victorian Aboriginal Spectacles Subsidy Scheme – providing successful community eye health outcomes. 14th National Rural Health Conference, 26-29 April 2017, Cairns QLD, Australia
Fricke TR. Lessons from the first 7 years of Victoria’s Aboriginal spectacle scheme. Close the Gap for Vision by 2020 National Conference 2017, 16-17 March 2017, Melbourne VIC, Australia
Wilson DA, Jong M, Sankaridurg P, Fricke TR, Resnikoff S, Naidoo K. A global generational shift in myopia. Association of Research in Vision and Ophthalmology Annual Meeting, 1-5 May 2016, Seattle WA, USA.
Fricke TR, Resnikoff S, Wilson D, Jong M, Naidoo K, Holden BA. Predicting the effects of climate change on global presbyopia epidemiology. American Academy of Optometry Annual Meeting, 7-10 October 2015, New Orleans LA, USA.
Fricke TR, Wilson D, Jong M, Resnikoff S, Naidoo K, Holden BA. Myopia meta-analysis methodology – a basis for future epidemiological predictions. American Academy of Optometry Annual Meeting, 7-10 October 2015, New Orleans LA, USA.
Papas EB, Tahhan N, Fricke TR, Wilson D, Jong M, Naidoo K, Resnikoff S, Holden BA. Global cost-effectiveness of correcting near vision impairment due to uncorrected presbyopia. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2015;56(7):2132-2132.
Wong K, Li JCH, Fricke TR, Park ASY, Jackson AJ. Managing refractive error in people with intellectual disabilities. Vision 2014 – 11th International Conference on Low Vision, 31 March – 3 April 2014, Melbourne VIC, Australia.
Napper G, Peters J, Anjou M, Fricke TR, Barney K, Vickery C, Jackson J. Building an eye-care program with Aboriginal communities in Victoria; a partnership approach. Indigenous Allied Health Australia 2013 National Conference (Healthy Footprints Leading Generational Change), 26-27 November 2013, Adelaide SA, Australia.
Jackson AJ, Napper GA, Peters J, Anjou MD, Hosking SL, Fricke TR. Closing the Gap in Indigenous eye care. American Academy of Optometry Annual Meeting, 24-27 October 2012, Phoenix AR, USA.
Tahhan N, Papas E, Fricke TR, Frick KD, Holden BA. Reliability of ophthalmic utility measures. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2012;53(14):1420-1420.
Marolia M, Paudel P, Fricke TR, Burnett A, Naduvilath T, Hani Y, Garap J. Vision services utilization and need in Papua New Guinea. International Agency for the Prevention of Blindness 9th General Assembly, 17-20 September 2012, Hyderabad India.
Tahhan N, Papas E, Fricke TR, Frick KD, Holden BA. Utility values and uncorrected refractive error in Australia. International Agency for the Prevention of Blindness 9th General Assembly, 17-20 September 2012, Hyderabad India.
Napper GA, Carozzi PN, Peters J, Jackson AJ, Fricke TR. Building an eye care program with Aboriginal communities in Victoria – a partnership approach. Aboriginal Health Conference 2012 – Everyone’s Responsibility, 24-25 May 2012, Melbourne Australia.
Invited speaker at joint Parliamentary Friends Group function (Parliamentary Friends of the Millennium Development Goals, plus Parliamentary Friends of Eye Health and Vision Care) at Parliament House, Canberra (12 October 2011)
Fricke TR, Sampson GP, Ayton LN. The elusive causative link between vision and learning. World Congress on Refractive Error, 20-24 September 2010, Durban South Africa
Fricke TR, Davis S, Davis AL. Environment policy development and Eye Care NGOs – the ICEE experience. World Congress on Refractive Error, 20-24 September 2010, Durban South Africa
Van Heerden GA, Fricke TR, Schlenther G, Davis AL. Eye Care programs gain through maximizing the value of volunteer contributions. World Congress on Refractive Error, 20-24 September 2010, Durban South Africa
Fricke TR, Schlenther G, Naidoo K, Holden B. Correction of Refractive Error - Sustainability of Available Models. Asia-ARVO International Meeting on Research in Vision and Ophthalmology, January 15-18, 2009, Hyderabad India, Program and Abstracts booklet page 88
Chong M, Sampson GP, Fricke TR. The Repeatability of the Developmental Eye Movement Test. Clin Exp Optom 2009;92(1):55-56
Ayton LN, Abel LA, Fricke TR, McBrien NA. Does the Developmental Eye Movement (DEM) test actually measure eye movements? Validation of a clinical saccade test. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2008;49(13):1810-1810.
Tahhan N, Fricke TR, Naduvilath T, Kierath J, Ho SM, Schlenther G, Layland B, Holden BA. Uncorrected refractive error in the north and eastern provinces of Sri Lanka. International Agency for the Prevention of Blindness 8th General Assembly, 25 – 28 August 2008, Buenos Aires Argentina
Sampson GA, Fricke TR, Metha AB, McBrien NA. Efficacy of treatment for visual information processing dysfunction and its effect on educational performance. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2005;46 (13):679-679.
Sampson GA, Fricke TR, Metha AB, McBrien NA. A comparison of IQ, visual motor and language tests as predictors of academic performance in primary school children with learning difficulties. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2003;44(13):1928-1928.
Fricke TR, Naidoo K, Cronje S, Holden B. Primary eyecare education in the developing countries of Africa. Optom Vis Sci 2002;79(12s):170
Wong EPF, Fricke TR, Dinardo C. Inter-examiner repeatability of a new modified Prentice Card compared to established phoria tests. American Academy of Optometry Annual Meeting, 7-10 December 2000, Orlando FL, USA.
Fricke TR. Monocular and Binocular visual characteristics of normal observers wearing Bangerter Foil translucent occluders. American Academy of Optometry Annual Meeting, 3-6 December 1998, San Francisco CA, USA.
Fricke TR and Siderov J. The relationship between visual acuity and clinically determined stereoacuity. American Academy of Optometry Annual Meeting, 7-11 December 1995, New Orleans LA, USA.
Memberships and Affiliations
Fellow of the American Academy of Optometry (since 1998)
Fellow of the Australian College of Optometry (since 1996)
Honorary senior fellow, University of Melbourne (since 1999)